Youth Rural-Urban Migration and Change in Livelihoods A Case of Informal Traders in Njombe Town, Tanzania

Isdory Mligo


Th is study investigated youth rural-urban migration and change in livelihoods in Njombe Town. Specifi cally
the study aimed at identifying the factors causing the migration of youths from rural to urban areas and
investigated the livelihoods of the youths after migrating to Njombe Town. Furthermore, the study employed
snowball sampling technique which enabled to get a sample size of 99 respondents. Purposive sampling
technique was used to get the key informants who provided the important information about youth rural-
urban migration and change in livelihoods. Th e study collected its data through interviews, focus group
discussion, observation, documentary sources and questionnaires. Th e study observed that lack of social services;
employment opportunities and poor per capita income in rural areas were the major factors that pushed the
youths out of rural areas while the possibilities of getting employment and conducive environment for business
activities were the pull factors of Youths to Njombe Town. Th e study fi ndings further showed that although most
of the youths had an idea of getting jobs in Njombe Town, only few managed to get formal employment due
to lack of education and important skills necessary for urban labour market. Th erefore, this forced the youths
to be employed in marginal jobs like being barmaids, domestic servants, security guards services, assistant’s
hostesses and most of them were self-employed in informal trading activities whereby few of them improved
their livelihoods compared to when they were in rural areas. Th e study recommended that Youths rural - urban
migration can be reduced by improvements in the agricultural sector which it was observed to discourage the
youth to remain in rural areas. Th e study further recommended that Youth should have access to fi nancial
capital and credits at reasonable interest rates


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