Accessibility to Fresh Water Resources for Domestic Uses in the Era of Climate Change and Variability in Pangani District, Tanzania

Donald Anthony Mwiturubani


Access to clean and safe fresh water remain a challenge to many developing countries. Provision of fresh
water both in terms of quantity and quality is a source of, and the condition for, a socio-economic
development. Local communities in the coastal areas of Pangani district, Tanzania have already felt and
are vulnerable to the impacts of climate change and variability. Th is paper assesses the eff ects of climate
change and variability on access to fresh water resources for domestic uses. Drawing from a sample
of 109 respondents, 11 key informant interviews, three focus group discussions and observations from
Bweni, Msaraza and Pangani Mashariki villages in Pangani district the fi ndings revealed that climate
change and variability has negative impacts on the quantity and quality of fresh water resources in
the area. Among the impact of climate change and variability on fresh water resources include rainfall
decrease and variability, prolonged drought, an increase of salinity in Pangani River and natural wells.
Th ese impacts have led to scarcity of fresh water in the district resulting into the increase of walking
distances to the fresh water sources, increase of water prices, and opting for unsafe sources. To adapt to the
impacts of climate change and variability people in Pangani district have opted to rainwater harvesting,
construction of boreholes and dams and planting mangroves to reduce salinity intrusion. Participation
of diff erent stakeholders (governments, NGOs, communities) in the design and implementation of
adaptation strategies to reduce impacts of climate change and variability and improve fresh water sources
is recommended.


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