Analysis of the Challenges of Integrated Coastal Management Approach in the Eastern Coast of Tanzania

Daniel Sabai


Understanding the challenges that surround the adoption of Integrated Coastal Management (ICM) approach may potentially help actors and facilitators of coastal-based development initiatives to devise sustainable plans for managing coastal and marine resources. This paper analyses the challenges that prevail in contexts where ICM approach was adopted in the eastern coast of Tanzania. It draws experiences from the Kinondoni Integrated Coastal Area Management Programme (KICAMP) to yield lessons that may potentially shed light to facilitators of community-based management initiatives in the coastal regions. The paper raises three main issues: (i) What is the essence of ICM approach? (ii) What are the key challenges associated with the adoption of ICM approach in Tanzania? (iii) What is the recommended manner of addressing emerging challenges? The paper is enriched with in-depth interview inputs from 7 technical personnel and 3 marine scientists who have served in ICM projects and programmes. Their views are complemented with accounts from 3 coastal residents; selected strategically on grounds of their long-term experiences in ICM programmes. Moreover, reports from the KICAMP and Tanga Coastal Zone Conservation and Development Programme (TCZCDP) provided additional input on the emerging challenges and possible measures for addressing them. The paper adopts a critical realist framework of analysis, the RRREI(C) model, to yield insights that depict prevailing and emerging ICM challenges. Captured challenges include: over-reliance on fisheries resources, over-expectations, emergence of gender-selective activities, cultural challenges, complexity of adopted monitoring programmes, non-sustainability of some developed projects, land use issues, the condition of attaching municipal staff to ICM projects, and diversification of activities.

Keywords: Integrated Coastal Management, adoption, approach, challenges, coastal resources.

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