Structural Adjustment Programmes and the Development of Low-Income Landlordism in Tanzania: The Case of Mbeya Municipality and Dar es Salaam City

Juma R Kiduanga


The contribution made by SAPs to landlords was to create rented house properties, which were beneficial both to the landlords and tenants. In Dar es Salaam city and Urban Mbeya there has been an increase in housing stock as a result of rented houses built by landlords in the context of the programmes. The rented house properties contributed were used by the owners as productive assets and rented out to generate incomes, which were used to meet various socio-economic needs of the landlords. The tenants benefited from the rented houses contributed by having places to live and carry out their various socio-economic activities.

Despite all the above benefits the study found that while in Dar es Salaam 81% of 99 rented houses surveyed were incomplete in various physical structures and lacked electricity that of Urban Mbeya constituted 74% of 100 rented houses, an indication of poor conditions of many rented houses available in the neighbourhoods. The houses in Dar es Salaam in addition of being characterised by those two aspects water was also missing in many of them. Three factors accounted for the situation of poor condition of rented houses in the surveyed areas of Dar es Salaam and Urban Mbeya. First, the inability of government agencies responsible for issuing security of tenure to landlords on rented properties. Secondly, the problem of inadequate finance existed to the side of the landlords, a situation attributed to an erosion of their incomes. And thirdly, bureaucracy exercised by some of TANESCO officials.

SAPs had never acted as a force that made incomes of the landlords to be eroded. Instead the programmes created various opportunities for the landlords and tenants to tap them in order to generate incomes that could be used as financial resources for improving and building housing respectively. The opportunities facilitated by SAPs were skills development, micro finance enterprises/organisations development and development of pro-poverty reduction strategies. It was found that many households however never benefited from the opportunities created by the programmes due to factors like unreliable market, stiff conditions of loans imposed by the micro finance enterprises, lack of loan management skills existed among the households, lack of awareness among the households on the existence of micro finance enterprises in the neighbourhoods and failure of the pro-poverty reduction strategies to trickle down to the households.


African Development Bank. 1990. The Social Dimension of Adjustment in Africa. A Policy Agenda. Abidjan, Cote d’Ivoire

Allen, J., & L. Mcdowell. 1989. Landlords and Property: Social Relations in the Private Rented Sector. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Amis, P. 1984. Squatters or Tenants: The Commercialisation of Unauthorized Housing in Nairobi. World Development, Vol. 12, No 1.

Brigham, A.M. 2004. Agricultural Exports and Food Insecurity in Developing Counties. The Case of Tanzania. A paper presented at the ESRF. Workshop on ‘Economic Liberalization and Agricultural Productivity in Tanzania’ Dar es Salaam September 2004.

Datta, K. 1995. Strategies for Urban Survival: Women Landlords in Gaborone, Botswana. Habitat International, Vol. 19, No 1.

East-West Gateway Coordination Council (E-WGCC). 2004. Affordable Housing. A Foundation for Stable Communities. Mimeo.

Fair T.J.D. 1984. Tanzania: Some Aspects of Urban Growth and Policy. Africa Insight, Vol 14 No 1.

Fimbo, M.G. 1988. Law and Urban Housing: A Study of State Intervention in Urban Housing in Tanzania. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Dar es Salaam.

Gilbert, A. 1987. Shants dwellers or renters of rooms? Cities, Vol. 4 No. 1.

Gilbert, A., et al. 1997. Low-income rental housing: Are South African Cities Different?. Environment and Urbanization, Vol. 9, No. 1.

Grimes, O.F. Jr. 1976. Housing for Low-Income Urban Families, Economics and Policy in Developing World. Washington D.C.: The World Bank.

Hellman, B. 1998. Capitalism as a Social Movement: The Case of Tanzania During the Mageuzi Era. PhD. Dissertation, Indiana University, U.S.A.

Hoek-Smit, M.C. 1990. The Urban Housing Sector in Tanzania: Analysis of The Urban Housing. Survey: World Bank Report.

International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED). 2001. Urban Environment Improvement and Poverty Reduction. Briefing paper 2. London.

Kironde, J.M.L. 2001. The Role of Municipalities in Dealing with Urban Poverty in Tanzania: The Case of the City of Dar es Salaam. A research report.

—. 1999. The Governance of Waste management in urban Tanzania. A research report, UCLAS, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

—. 1998. The Access to Land by The Urban Poor in Tanzania. With Some Reference to Structural Adjustment Programmes. The Case of Dar es Salaam. UCLAS Research Series, 99.1.

Kemete, A.Y., A. Tostensen, & I. Tvedten. 2001. From Global Village to Urban Globe, Urbanisation and Poverty in Africa: Implications for Norwegian Aid Policy. Paper No. R. 2001:2

Kyessi, A.G. 2002. Community Participation in Urban Infrastructure Provision. Servicing Informal Settlements in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, Spring Research Series No. 33, Dortmund

Kyessi, A., et al. 1995. Shelter Situation in Tanzania. A paper presented at a Workshop on Prefabrication in Housing Construction in Tanzania held in Dar es Salaam, 22nd - 24th March 1995.

Lee-Smith, D. 1990. Squatter Landlords in Nairobi: A case study of Korogocho. In P. Amis and P. Lloyd (eds). Housing Africa's Urban Poor: Manchester: Manchester University Press.

Lugalla, J. 1995. Crisis, Urbanization and Urban Poverty in Tanzania. A Study of Urban Poverty and Survival Politics. Maryland: University Press of America.

Mabogunje, A.L., et al. 1978. Shelter Provision in Developing Countries: The Influence of Standards and Criteria. New York: John Wiley and Sons.

Macoloo, G.C. 1991. The Transformation of the Production and Retail of Building Materials for Low-income Housing in Mombasa, Kenya. Development and Change, Vol. 22.

Magembe, J.A. 1983. Housing Production in Selected Areas of Dar es Salaam. A Comparative Study of Site and Services, Squatter Upgrading Areas. A research report, Ardhi Institute, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

Magesa, I.H.M. 1991. Rent Restriction Legislation and the Housing Problem in Tanzania. LLM Dissertation, University of Dar es Salaam.

Makara, J.M. 1995. Intervention in Housing Provision in Makeni, Sierra Leone. Habitat International, Vol.19, No. 4.

Mbeya Urban District. 1998. Urban Authority Partnership Programme. Mimeo.

Moser, C.O. 1978. Informal Sector or Petty Commodity Production: Dualism or Dependence in Urban Development? World Development, Vol.6, No.9/10.

McNeill, P. 1995. Research Methods. 2nd Edition. London: Routledge.

Mushi, N.S. 2005. Analysis of Urban-Rural Linkages and Livelihoods in Mlandizi, Dar es Salaam. In UNHSP (UN-HABITAT). 2005. Urban-Rural Linkages Approach to Sustainable Development.

Ngware, S. 2000. Status of Urban Research and Policies in Tanzania. In S. Ngware and J.M.L. Kironde (eds). Urbanising Tanzania. Issues, Initiatives and Priorities. Dar es Salaam University Press: Dar es Salam.

O’Connor, A. 1988. The Rate of Urbanisation in Tanzania in the 1970s. In M. Hodd (ed). Tanzania After Nyerere. London: Printer Publishers.

Potter, R.B., & S.L. Evans. 1998. The City in the Developing World. England Pearson Education Limited

—. 1991. Developing Institutional Capacity to Meet the Housing Needs of the Urban Poor. Experience in Kenya, Tanzania and Zambia. Cities. Vol.8, No.3.

Rose, S. 2000. Rapid Urbanisation in the 21st Century: Future Research Issues. In S. Ngware and J.M.L. Kironde (eds), ibid.

Skaare, O.S. 2000. Urbanization and Flood Hazard. A study of settlement of Flood Exposed Land in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. MPhil thesis, Department of Sociology and Human Geography University of Oslo.

Summa, K. 2002. The Role of Privatisation in Providing the Urban Poor Access to Social Services. The Case of Solid Waste Collection in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Research Report No 02.2 on Poverty Alleviation.

UNCHS-HABITAT. 2003. The Challenges of Slums. Global Report on Human Settlements 2003. London: Earthscan Publications Ltd.

—. 2001. Cities in a Globalizing World. Global Report on Human Settlements 2001. London: Earthscan Publication Ltd.

UNCHS. 1996. The Human Settlements Conditions of the World’s Urban Poor. Nairobi.

United Republic of Tanzania (URT). 2006. National Strategy for Growth and reduction of Poverty (NSGRP). Tanzania Printers: Dar es Salaam.

—. 2003. Poverty and Human Development Report 2003. Dar es Salaam: Mkuki na Nyota Publishers.

—. 2000. Economic Survey of Tanzania. Dar es Salaam: Government Printer.

—. 1992. National Strategies for Sustainable Human Settlements Development in Tanzania, A report submitted to the Ministry of Lands, Housing and Urban development Dar es Salaam.

van der Geest, W., & A. Kottering. 1994. Structural Adjustment in Tanzania. Objectives and Achievements. In Willem van der Geest (ed). Negotiating Structural Adjustment in Africa. London: James Currey.

Wagao, J.H. 1992. Adjustment Policies in Tanzania, 1981–89: The Impact on Growth, Structure and Human Welfare. In A. Giovanni et al. (eds). Africa’s Recovery in the 1990s. From Stagnation and Adjustment to Human Development. St. Martin’s Press, USA


  • There are currently no refbacks.