Management and Population Status of Kihansi Spray Toad Nectophrynoides asperginis in Captive Breeding Facilities in Tanzania

Cuthbert L. Nahonyo, Ezekiel M. Goboro, Richard S. Ugomba, Emmanuel S. Nkombe, Severinus Mutagwaba, Hussein Adam, Juma I. Kimera, Person Kalenga, Wilirk Ngalason


Kihansi spray toad Nectophrynoides asperginis was discovered in 1996 in Kihansi gorge. The toad was declared extinct in the wild in 2009 due to habitat alteration. Before its extinction, 499 individuals were flown to the United States of America zoos in 2000 for captive breeding. In 2010, the University of Dar es Salaam, and in 2011 the Kihansi captive breeding facilities were established in Tanzania. The intention was to breed, and reintroduce the toad back to the natural environment in the gorge. The founder populations for the two facilities were sourced from the USA zoos. This study addresses captive management practices, and population status of the toad at the two facilities from 2013 to 2019. Toad counts were carried out once every two months. There was a significant increase in the number of toads over the years. The increase was associated with suitable management practices. Success in captive breeding at the facilities led to the removal of 3,236 individuals from the University for restocking the Kihansi facility and for reintroduction, and 1,273 individuals from Kihansi facility for reintroduction. The establishment of the two facilities played a major role in both the ex-situ and in-situ conservation of the toad.    
Keywords: Kihansi spray toad, extinction, captive breeding, population, reintroduction

Full Text:



  • There are currently no refbacks.