Je, Uamuzi wa Kutumia Kiswahili Mahakamani Unatosha Kuleta Haki?


  • Anthoni M Keya University of Dar es Salaam



Makala haya ni mwitikio kwa Serikali ya Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania
kuonyesha kukijali zaidi Kiswahili na hatimaye Bunge kupitisha Mswada wa
Marekebisho ya Sheria Mbalimbali wa Mwaka 2021 kukifanya Kiswahili kiwe
lugha ya sheria na maswala yote yahusianayo na utoaji wa haki nchini. Mbali
na kupongeza upandishaji ngazi Kiswahili, makala haya hujaribu kusema
kwamba kukipandisha Kiswahili peke yake hakutapunguza ugumu wa lugha
ya sheria, na hakutatufikisha kwenye hatua ya muhimu zaidi, mgawanyo sawa
wa rasilimali lugha kati ya wakili na shahidi wakati wa mahojiano-bomozi.
Makala haya yanapendekeza mapitio ya tafsiri zilizokwishafanywa kwa
kuzingatia kwamba tafsiri za kisheria ni tofauti na nyinginezo; ianzishwe
kampeni ya lugha rahisi ya kisheria kwenye makala yote ya kisheria; itafutwe
njia ya kulainisha mahusiano kati ya sheria, haki na jamii au umma wa
Watanzania. Mwisho, makala haya hupendekeza mfumo wa sheria wa
advesaria utazamwe karibu pamoja na ule wa inkwizitoria ili kuona jinsi
inavyoweza kupatikana njia nzuri ya kutoa au kuchukua ushahidi ambayo
itazingatia mgawanyo wa rasilimali lugha.
Dhana za msingi: Advesaria, haki, inkwizitoria, Kiswahili, mahakama, sheria,

This paper is a follow up to the Government of Tanzania ' s
recognition of Kiswahili and the ensuing Written Laws
Miscellaneous Amendment Act of 2021 to declare Kiswahili as the
language of laws in the country and the language to be used in
administration and the dispensation of justice. While acknowledging
the importance of the declaration, this paper argues that this
declaration alone will not make legal language any less difficult, and
will not get us to the equitable distribution of discourse resources
between councel and witnesses at cross-examination, which is a more
pressing problem. The paper suggests a review of the legal
translation of the already ' translated ' documents, mounting a serious
plain legal language campaign for the judiciary; making the relations
between the law, justice and the Tanzanian public more cordial; and
lastly, the paper suggests a closer look at the Adversarial Judicial
System together with some elements of the Inquisitorial Judicial
System to bring the equitable distribution of discourse resources
during the evidence stage.

Author Biography

Anthoni M Keya, University of Dar es Salaam

Senior Lecturer, Department of Foreign Languages and Linguistics, Unversity of Dar es Salaam,
P.O. Box 35040, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania


Beach, W. (1985). Temporal Density in Courtroom Interaction:

Constraints on the Recovery of Past Events in Legal Discourse.

Communication Monographs, 52: 01 €“19.

Bentham, J. (1838). The Works of Jeremy Bentham, ed. J. Bowring.

Edinburgh: William Tait.

Bogoch, B. (2000). Discourse Dilemmas and Courtroom Control: the

Talk of Trial Judges. Law & Social Inquiry, 25(1): 227 €“247.

Bourdieu, P. (1987). The Force of Law: Toward a Sociology of the

Juridical Field. The Hastings Law Journal, 38: 805 €“853.

| Je, Uamuzi wa Kutumia Kiswahili Mahakamani Unatosha Kuleta Haki?

Cavagnoli, S. & Wölk, J. (1997). Einfuhrung in die Italienische

Reschssprache-Introduzione all ' italiano Giuridico.

Munich/Vienna/Bern: Bern/Manz/Stampf.

Danet, B. (1980). Language in the Legal Process. Law & Society

Review, 14: 445 €“564.

Duarte i Montserrat, C. (1993). Llengua i Adminiustraci ' o.

Barcelona: Columna Edicions.

Duarte i Montserrat, C. & Martinez, A. (1995). El Lenguaje Juridico.

Buenos Aires: A-Z editora.

Dunstan, K. (1980). Context for Coercion: Analyzing Properties of

Courtroom "Questions". British Journal of Law and Society,

(1): 61 €“77.

Freedgood, L. (2002). Voicing the Evidence: The Pragmatic Power of

Interpreters in Trial Testimony. A PhD Thesis, Boston


Fröhlich, L. (2014). Legal Translation: A Study of Rogatory Letters

and its Implications. Language and Law, 1(2): 117 €“119.

Giampieri, P. (2016). Is the European Legal English Legalese-Free?

Italian Journal of Public Law, 8(2): 424 €“440.

Gibbons, J. (2003). Forensic Linguistics: An Introduction to

Language in the Justice System. Cornwall: Blackwell.

Goodman, G. S., Tobey, A. E., Batterman-Faunce, J. M., Orcutt, H.,

Thomas, S., Shapiro, C. & Sachsenmaier, T. (1998). Face-to-face

Confrontation: Effects of Closed-circuit Technology on

Children ' s Eyewitness Testimony and Jurors ' Decisions. Law

and Human Behavior, 22(2): 165 €“203.

Gowers, E. (1948). Plain Words. London: Her Majesty ' s Stationery


Gowers, E. (1954). The Complete Plain Words. London: Her

Majesty ' s Stationery Office.

Journal of Linguistics and Language in Education Volume 15, Number 1 (2021) | 43

Gunnarsson, B. L. (1984). Functional Comprehensibility of

Legislative Texts: Experiments with a Swedish Act of

Parliament. Text, 4(1 €“3): 71 €“105.

Hahn, P. & Clayton, S. (1996). The Effects of Attorney Presentation

Style, Attorney Gender and Juror Gender on Juror Decisions.

Law and Human Behavior, 20: 533 €“554.

Hale, S. & Gibbons, J. (1999). Varying Realities Patterned Changes

in the Interpreter ' s Pepresentation of Courtroom and External

Realities. Applied Linguistics, 20(2): 203 €“220.

Hayes, S. (1993). People with an Intellectual Disability and the

Criminal Justice System: Appearances before Local Courts (4).

Sidney: New South Wales Law Reform Commission.

Hazard, G. C. (1991). The Future of Legal Ethics. The Yale Law

Journal, 100(5): 1239 €“1280.

Ismail, J. (2020). Mchango wa Tasinia ya Sheria katika Ukuzaji na

Uenezaji wa Kiswahili Tanzania: Mifano kutoka Mahakama ya

Tanzania na Taasisi za Wadau wa Sheria. East African Journal

of Swahili Studies, 2(2): 11 €“22.

Jacquemet, M. (1996). Credibility in Court: Communicative Practices

in the Camorra Trial. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Kenny, S. (1999). Maintaining Public Confidence in the Judiciary: A

Precarious Equilibrium. Monash University Law Review, 25(2):

Keya, A. (2013). A Critical Discourse Analysis of Cross-Examination

at the High Court of Tanzania in Dar es Salaam. PhD

Dissertation, University of Dar es Salaam.

Keya, A. (2016). "Nani Aliamua?" Sera ya Lugha na Kitokeacho

Mahakamani Tanzania. Journal of Linguistics and Language in

Education, 10(1): 20 €“36.

Keya, A. (2017a). The Counsel-Witness Battle of Identities on Cross-

Examination at the High Court of Tanzania in Dar es Salaam.

Journal of Linguistics and Language in Education, 11(1): 1 €“18.

| Je, Uamuzi wa Kutumia Kiswahili Mahakamani Unatosha Kuleta Haki?

Keya, A. (2017b). How Some Witnesses Have Vied for Floor Control

in Tanzanian Higher Courts.Tanzanian Journal of Population

Studies and Development, 24(1&2): 94 €“107.

Kirchheimer, O. (1969). Political Justice €“ The Use of Legal

Procedure for Political Ends. Princeton, NJ: Princeton

University Press.

Konradi, A. (1996). Preparing to Testify: Rape Survivors Negotiating

the Criminal Justice process. Gender and Society, 10(4): 404 €“

Luchjenbroers, J. (1991). Discourse Dynamics in the Courtroom:

Some Methodological Points of Description. La Trobe

University Working Papers in Linguistics, (4): 85 €“109.

Magenau K. S. (2003). Jury Duty: Competing Legal Ideologies and

the Interactional Negotiation of Authority in Jury Deliberation.

PhD Thesis, Georgetown University.

Maley, Y. (1994). The Language of the Law. In J. Gibbons (ed.).

Language and the Law. London: Longman.

Matoesian, G. M. (1993). Reproducing Rape: Domination through

Talk in the Courtroom. Chicago: Chicago University Press.

Melinkoff, D. (1963). Language of the Law. Boston, M.A: Little,


Moreno, F. J. (2016). V- Teaching the Use of ad hoc Corpora.

Language and Law/Linguagem e Direito, 3(1), 100 €“119.

Murphy, P. (2000). Murphy on Evidence (7th Edition). London:

Blackstone Press Limited.

Okawara, M. H. (2004). Legal Japanese Viewed the Unfair

Competition Prevention Law. In J. Gibbons, V. Prakasham and

K.V. Tirumalesh (eds.). Justice and Language. Delhi: Longman


Parriag, A. (2001). An Analysis of Courtroom Dynamics of Sexual

Assault Trials. PhD Thesis, Carleton University.

Journal of Linguistics and Language in Education Volume 15, Number 1 (2021) | 45

Penman, R. (1987). Discourse in Courts: Cooperation, Coercion and

Coherence. Discourse Processes, 10: 201 €“218.

Penman, R. (1992). Plain English: Wrong Solution to an Important

Problem. Australian Journal of Communication, 19(3): 1 €“18.

Rawls, J. (2011). A Theory of Justice. New Delhi: Universal Law


Renton, D. (1975). The Preparation of Legislation: Report of a

committee appointed by the Lord President of the Council.

London: Her Majesty ' s Stationery Office.

Rigney, A. C. (1999). Questioning in Interpreted Testimony. Forensic

Linguistics, 6(1): 1350 €“1771.

Shivji, I., Majamba, H., Makaramba, R., & Peter, C. (2004).

Constitutional and Legal System of Tanzania: A Civics

Sourcebook. Dar es Salaam: Mkuki na Nyota Publishers Ltd.

Wahn, P. & Clayton, S. D. (1996). The Effects of Attorney

Presentation Style, Attorney Gender and Juror Gender on

Juror Decisions. Law and Human Behavior, 20(5): 533 €“554.

Walker, A. G. (1987). Linguistic Manipulation, Power and the Legal

Setting. In L. Kedar (ed.) Power through Discourse. New

Jersey: Ablex.

Watson, A. (2007). Law and Society. In J. W. Cairns and P. du

Plessis (eds.) Beyond Dogmatics: Law and Society in the Roman

World. Edinburgh: the Edinburgh Law Review Trust and the


Woodbury, H. (1984). The Strategic Use of Questions in Court.

Semiotica, 48(3/4): 197 €“228.

Zdenkowski, G. (2007). Magistrates ' Courts and Public Confidence.

Canbera: NSW Local Courts.

Zipursky, B. C. (2005). Philosophy of Tort Law. In M. P. Golding and

W. A. Edmundson (eds.). The Blackwell Guide to the

Philosophy of Law and Legal Theory. Oxford: Blackwell