Mwingiliano wa Vishazi Tegemezi na Vishazi Bebwa

Amani J. Chipalo


This study explores the subordinate and embedded clause concepts following
their differences in usage among grammarians. There are grammarians with
an approach that the terms have no difference content in description but only
terminological difference. Also, it is further explained that the concept of
subordinate clause has a background in traditional grammar; that is, it is more
semantic in describing syntactic issues. With that basis, in order to avoid
relying on semantics as well as reflecting syntactical flavour in terminologies;
there is an approach purporting to use embedded clause instead of subordinate
clause. The subordinate clause is synonymous to embedded clause because they
all make sense when attached to an independent clause. Therefore, this
approach considers the terms synonyms and they can be used interchangeably.
But there is another approach which does not take these concepts as synonyms.
The only reason is that the terms are no how related and they cannot be used
interchangeably since the opposite of embedded clause is unembedded clause,
not subordinate clause. Due to such difference in approach, this study uses
Kiswahili data to find out the connection and difference existing between these
two terms, subordinate and embedded clauses. The data were gathered from
examples used during lectures in a PhD (Kiswahili) class and various
publications that had explored about clauses and sentences in Kiswahili.
Moreover, those data were analysed based on the Extended Standard Theory.
The findings revealed that subordinate clauses are characterised by two main
features: the presence of reflexive affixes in a verb or the use of subordinators
which can be overt or covert. On the side of embedded clauses, the findings
showed that it is contextually identified. Generally speaking an embedded
clause is a subordinate clause which cannot be omitted in a sentence without
distracting the predication of the verb or noun in the independent clause of
matrix sentence. The semantic and syntactic features of the Kiswahili nouns
and verbs dictate the embedment of the subordinate clauses. It is thus
concluded that these terms cannot be used synonymously. Nevertheless, the
terms are related since the subordinateclause is one of the main types of
clauses while the embedded clause is one among the types of subordinate
clauses. Simply put, depending on the structure of a sen

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