Engaging Women in the Extractive Sector: A Review of Tanzania’s Policy and Legislative Framework

Hamudi Majamba


Abstract This article provides an in-depth analysis on the extent to which women are involved in the decision-making chain in the extractive sector (both informal and formal) in Tanzania. Its specific focus is on the legal and policy framework that has been put in place, taking into account both the traditional and non-traditional extractive sectors. Regarding the traditional sector, attention has been placed on oil, gas, and minerals. The non-traditional extractive sector, on the other hand, covers natural resources other than oil, gas, and minerals. Its thesis is guided by three main assessment criteria to benchmark women’s participation or/and engagement in the extractive sector in the traditional and non-traditional extractive industries: law, policy, and claimed space. The article reveals that the legal and policy framework governing the extractive sector does not guarantee effective participation of women. The article recommends that the legal and policy framework be amended to address this anomaly.


law and extractives, role of women, Tanzania.

Full Text:




Campese, J. (2011). Gender and REDD+ in Tanzania: An Overview of Key Issues.

Tanzania Natural Resources Forum, Report, Dar es Salaam.

Chachage, S.L. (1995). The Meek Shall Inherit the Earth but Not the Mining Rights: The

Mining Industry and Accumulation in Tanzania. In P. Gibbon (ed.). Liberalized

Development in Tanzania: Studies on Accumulation Processes and Local Institutions. SIAS,


Curtis, M. & T. Lissu. (2008). A Golden Opportunity? How Tanzania is Failing to Benefit

from Gold Mining. Christian Council of Tanzania, National Council of Muslims in

Tanzania and Tanzania Episcopal Conference, Dar es Salaam.

Institute for Human Rights and Business. (2016). Human Rights in Tanzania’s Extractive

Sector Report, London.

Kesale, A. (2017). Selected Experiences of the Use of the Village Assembly in the

Governance at the Grassroots Levels in Ludewa District Council in Tanzania, Journal

of Public Administration and Governance, Vol. 7 No. 2.

Kuntala, L. (2007). Roles and Status of Women in Extractive Industries in India: Making a

Place for a Gender Sensitive Mining Development, Social Change, December.

Leifsen, E. (2017). New Mechanisms of Participation in Extractive Governance: between

Technologies of Governance and Resistance Work. Third World Quarterly,38:5, 1043-1057.

Mohamed, A.R. (2016). Effects of Climate Change on Land Tenure in Zanzibar Islands.

FIG Workshop Week, Christchurch, New Zealand.

Mutagwaba, W. (2018). Artisanal and Small-Scale Mining in Tanzania – Evidence to

Inform an Action Dialogue. Research Report, IIED, London.

Society for International Development. (2009). The Extractive Resources Industry in

Tanzania: Status and Challenges of the Mining Sector. Report.

Tanzania National Bureau of Statistics. (2017). Women & Men in Tanzania FACTS AND

FIGURES 2017. Retrieved from: www.nbs.go.tz/nbs/takwimu/WomenAndMen/

women_and_men_booklet.pdf) on October 10th 2018.

Tanzania Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative. (2016). 2015/2016 Report. Dar es


Tanzania Gender Networking Programme. (2016). (TGNP Mtandao). Annual Report. Dar

es Salaam.

United Nations Environment Program. (2012). Analysis of Formalization Approaches in

the Artisanal and Small Scale Gold Mining sector based on experiences in Ecuador,

Mongolia, Peru, Tanzania, and Uganda. Tanzania, Division of Technology, Industry

and Economics (DTIE), Chemicals Branch, Geneva, Switzerland.

UN Women. (2017). Mapping Study on Gender and Extractives in Mainland Tanzania

Report. Dar es Salaam.

United Republic of Tanzania. (2000). The Women and Gender Development Policy. Dar

es Salaam.

United Republic of Tanzania. (2010). Ministry of Finance and Economic Affairs. Tanzania

Gender Indicators Booklet Poverty, Eradication and Economic Empowerment

Division. Dar es Salaam.

United Republic of Tanzania. (2008). Report of the Presidential Mining Review Committee

to Advise the Government on Oversight of the Mining Sector (Vol. 2). Dar es Salaam.

United Republic of Tanzania. (2017). Tanzania National Bureau of Statistics, Women and

Men in Tanzania FACTS AND FIGURES. Dar es Salaam.

United Republic of Tanzania. (2013). The National Natural Gas Policy of Tanzania. Dar

es Salaam


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2021 Tanzania Journal of Development Studies

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.