The Uluguru Payment for Ecosystem Services (PES) Programme in Tanzania: Can Livelihoods Benefits between PES Participants and Non-participants Go Beyond Implementation?

Theresia Philemon


Payments for Ecosystem Services (PES) is a market-based mechanism with potential incentives for managing natural resources while addressing livelihood issues. It operates both directly, through cash payments and indirectly, through adopted Sustainable Land Management practices. However, there is scanty information on sustainability of these benefits. This paper, therefore, informs the extent to which PES benefits can be achieved beyond operationalization of the programme in Uluguru Mountains. The concurrent embedded design was adopted to collect and analyse quantitative as well as qualitative data from 335 households (both PES participants and non-participants). The PES nonparticipants were involved because they adopted SLM practices even though the programme was not implemented in their villages. Also, focus group discussions, in-depth interviews and observations were employed to collect information for the study. Five livelihood assets, namely, human, social, physical, natural, and financial proposed by Sustainable Livelihood Framework (the DFID 1999 framework) were used as indicators to assess the livelihood benefits. Findings revealed few livelihood benefits, namely, strengthening social networks, access to better shelter as well as housing, increased farm productivity and financial savings. Therefore, local cultural aspects are recommended to sustain benefits of PES beyond the program duration.

Key words: Livelihood, Ecosystem Services, Sustaining Benefits

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