Effects of Digitalization on the Three-tier Structure of Tanzania’s Film Industry

Issa Athumani Mbura

Abstract


Abstract This paper examines the effects of digitalization on the three-tier structure of Tanzania film industry. Explicitly, the paper focuses on the period between 1990 and 2020. It follows on the presumptions that omnipresent and pervasive digital video and Internet-based technologies promoted under the theme of digitalization and underpinned by the digital revolution theory are impacting on film industries across nations. The specific drivers of the digitalization that the paper advances are digital video cameras and computer-based nonlinear editing systems applied in the production of films, Digital Versatile Discs (DVD), Online movie streaming and Video on Demand (VOD) platforms as used in distributing films and digital cinema formats and projectors in exhibition of films. Key informant interview method was used to collect qualitative data from twenty six (26) respondents. The respondents included media experts, filmmakers, camera operators, video editors and various film industry stakeholders. Other data collection methods employed included direct observation and online ethnography. The paper reveals that digitalization elicits and enhances specific changes on the three-tier structure of the Tanzania film industry. Due to the effects of digitalization the Tanzania film industry has morphed into a functional film industry. The paper concludes that in spite of the differences in its effectiveness and purposes that are grounded on issues of contexts, digitalization is more important than other determining factors such as capital formation in impacting on the transformation of the three-tier structure of the country’s film industry.

Key words: Digitalization, Tanzania film industry, Bongo movie, Three-tier structure

https://dx.doi.org/10.56279/ummaj.v9i1.7


Full Text:

PDF

References


References

Belton, J. 2004, Digital cinema: a false revolution, in Braudy, L and Cohen,

M (eds), Film Theory and Criticism: Introductory Readings (pp. 99-114), 6th ed,

Oxford Univerity Press, New York, NY.

Benghozi, P. J., and Paris, T. 2016, The cultural economy in the digital age:

a revolution in intermediation? City, Culture and Society, vol. 7, pp.75-80.

Bisschoff, L and Overbergh A. 2012, Digital as the new popular in African

cinema? Case studies from the continent, Research in African Literatures,

vol. 43, no. 4, pp. 112-127.

Dancyger, K. 1999, The world of film and video production: aesthetics and

practices, Harcourt Brace College Publishers, Fort Worth, USA.

Debjani, R. 2014, Cinema in the age of digital revolution, International

Journal of Interdisciplinary and Multidisciplinary Studies (IJIMS), vol 1, no. 4,

pp. 107 – 111. http://www.ijims.com.

Friedberg, A. 2004, The end of cinema: multimedia and digitalization, in

Braudy L and Cohen M (eds), Film theory and criticism: introductory

readings, 6th ed, Oxford Univerity Press, New York.

Ganz, A, and Khatib, L. 2006, Digital cinema: the transformation of film

practice and aesthetics, New Cinemas: Journal of Contemporary Film, vol. 4.,

p. 21-36.

Kang'ang’a, M.K. 2006, A new trend in Tanzania film making: challenges and

prospects, Unpublished MA Dissertation, University of Dar es Salaam, Fine

and Performing Arts, Dar es Salaam.

Kim, K. 2020, The impact of social distancing on box-office revenue:

evidence from the COVID-19 pandemic, Journal of Quantitative Markets and

Economics. https://link.springer.com/article

Klineberg, E, and Benzecry, C. 2004, Cultural production in a digital age,

Anals of the American Academy of Political Science and Social Science, vol. 597,

pp. 6-18.

Effects of Digitalization on Three-tier Structure of Tanzania’s Film Industry

UMMA, Volume 9 (1), 2022 163

Lichtenstein, A.L, and Sorensen, E. 2014, Country analysis: art and culture

of Tanzania. Report submitted to the Danish Center of Culture and

Development (CKU). https://www.slideshare.net/AmandaLichtenstein1

Magalla, A. 2015, Digital copyright infringement in Tanzania: Law and

practice, 10.13140/rg.2.1.5066.5681.

Mitchel, W. 2018, Report predicts key film industry changes over the Next 5

Years. https://www.screendaily.com/news/report.

Mwakalinga M. N. 2013, Political economy of cinema (video film) in

Tanzania, African Review, vol. 40, no. 1. pp. 203 – 217.

Orlando, K.V. (2017). Quick takes: movies & popular culture, New African

Cinema, Rutgers University Press, New Brunswich, NJ.

Rani, P. 2011, Impact of technology on creative industries: a study of indian film

industry, PhD Thesis, India,

https://eprints.manipal.edu/78288/1/search_paper_final%5B1%5D.pdf

Shule, V. 2011, Tanzania films: between innovation and incompetence, in

Kerr, D. and J. Plastow (eds) African Theatre: Media and Performance (pp. 39-

, James Currey, Woodbridge, UK. pp. 39-49.

Shule, V. 2014, Video-film production and distribution in Tanzania:

copyright infringement and piracy, African Review, vol. 41, no. 2, pp. 185-

UNCTAD. 2019, Digital Economy Report 2019. Value Creation and

Capture: Implications for Developing Countries. United Nations.

UNESCO. 2013, Emerging markets and the digitalization of the film

industry: an analysis of the 2012 UIS International Survey of Feature Film

Statistics, UNESCO Institute for Statistics, Paris.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.