Opportunities and Challenges Experienced by Smallholder Farmers in Using Climate Smart Agriculture to Adapt to Climate Variability and Change in Kilosa District, Tanzania

Zacharia Silas Silas, Patrick M Ndaki


This study assesses opportunities and challenges experienced by smallholder farmers
in using climate smart agriculture (CSA) to adapt to climate change and variability in
Kilosa District, Tanzania. The objective of this study was to establish the opportunities
and challenges that arise due to the adoption of CSA practises in enhancing crop
production and adaptive capacity in improving food security among smallholder
farmers. Data were collected from 100 purposively selected crop farmers’ households
using a questionnaire, focus group discussions, and observation; as well as conducting
transect walks. Obtained quantitative data were analysed using frequency counts,
percentages and inferential statistics, in particular chi-square cross-tabulation to
determine relationships between variables. The analysis of qualitative data involved the
identification, examination and interpretation of patterns and themes that arose from
the textual data. Findings revealed that the opportunities brought about by climatic
smart agriculture included high demand for minimum water usage technologies, and
the adoption of drought-resistant crop varieties. Shortened rains, conflicts between
farmers and livestock keepers, and the lack of CSA knowledge were found to be the
major challenges. The study concluded that CSA practises are of potential benefits in
the adaptation to climate change and/or variability. The study recommends supporting
services such as agricultural subsidies, technologies, trainings in CSA practises and
funding to smallholder farmers to enhance their adaptive capacity and long-term
resilience to adverse impacts of climate change and variability.

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