Speaker-audience Convergence and Divergence in Tanzanian Campaign Discourse

Kelvin Mathayo


This paper illustrates how two Tanzanian presidential candidates deploy
discourse for self-legitimation and other-delegitimation purposes. It also
􀁈􀁛􀁄􀁐􀁌􀁑􀁈􀁖􀀃􀁄􀁘􀁇􀁌􀁈􀁑􀁆􀁈􀁖􀂷􀀃􀁘􀁑􀁇􀁈􀁕􀁖􀁗􀁄􀁑􀁇􀁌􀁑􀁊􀀃􀁒􀁉􀀃􀁗􀁋􀁈􀀃􀁖􀁗􀁕􀁄􀁗􀁈􀁊􀁌􀁈􀁖􀀃the candidates used with a
view to finding out whether their understanding and the dual function of the
strategies converge or diverge. The paper examines four campaign speeches
given by former President Jakaya Mrisho Kikwete and Dr Wilbroad Slaa
during the 2010 presidential election campaign (two speeches by each
candidate). The three questions guiding this paper are: How did the candidates
legitimate themselves and delegitimate each other? What is the target
their understanding depart from the function the strategies performed or not?
Critical Discourse Analysis (henceforth CDA) is used to analyse the speeches.
􀀬􀁑􀀃 􀁓􀁄􀁕􀁗􀁌􀁆􀁘􀁏􀁄􀁕􀀏􀀃 􀁗􀁋􀁈􀀃 􀁄􀁑􀁄􀁏􀁜􀁖􀁌􀁖􀀃 􀁌􀁖􀀃 􀁇􀁒􀁑􀁈􀀃 􀁘􀁖􀁌􀁑􀁊􀀃 􀀷􀁋􀁈􀁒􀀃 􀁙􀁄􀁑􀀃 􀀯􀁈􀁈􀁘􀁚􀁈􀁑􀂷􀁖􀀃 􀁇􀁌􀁖􀁆􀁘􀁕􀁖􀁌􀁙􀁈􀀃
semantic-functional approach. The findings show that the candidates deployed
certain discursive strategies for self-legitimation and other-delegitimation
purposes, of which some of the participants were aware. The other functions
suggested by a fair number of participants are seeking to serve Tanzanians and
lying. But it is shown that, if the participants had pr􀁒􀁅􀁈􀁇􀀃 􀁗􀁋􀁈􀀃 􀁆􀁄􀁑􀁇􀁌􀁇􀁄􀁗􀁈􀁖􀂷􀀃
􀁏􀁄􀁑􀁊􀁘􀁄􀁊􀁈􀀃 􀁉􀁘􀁕􀁗􀁋􀁈􀁕􀀏􀀃 􀁗􀁋􀁈􀁜􀀃 􀁚􀁒􀁘􀁏􀁇􀁑􀂷􀁗􀀃 􀁋􀁄􀁙􀁈􀀃 􀁐􀁈􀁑􀁗􀁌􀁒􀁑􀁈􀁇􀀃 􀁉􀁘􀁑􀁆􀁗􀁌􀁒􀁑􀁖􀀃 􀁖􀁘􀁆􀁋􀀃 􀁄􀁖􀀃 􀁖􀁈􀁈􀁎􀁌􀁑􀁊􀀃 􀁗􀁒􀀃
serve. This divergence implies that consumers of campaign speeches need to
pay close attention to language to understand what candidates say.
Key words: Self-legitimation, other-delegitimation, discourse, CDA, serve,
lying, understanding, convergence, divergence, Kikwete, Slaa

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