Papers in Education and Development

Papers in Education and Development is dedicated to the analysis of educational problems and issues from a multidisciplinary point of view. Contributions are invited from authors in a variety of academic disciplines whose work has significant implications for educational policy and/or educational practice both in sub-Saharan Africa and beyond. The Editorial Board accepts research-based analytical papers, original research reports, reviews and short communications.


EDITORIAL BOARD MEMBERS


Chief Editor


Eustella P. Bhalalusesa, Associate Professor, Department of Educational
Foundations, Management and Lifelong Learning, University of Dar es
Salaam, Tanzania


Associate Editors


Blackson Kanukisya, Senior Lecturer, Department of Educational Foundations,
Management and Lifelong Learning, University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
Philipo Lonati Sanga, Senior Lecturer, Department of Educational Foundations,
Management and Lifelong Learning, University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania


Editorial Board Members (Domestic)


William A.L. Anangisye, Professor, Department of Educational Foundations,
Management and Lifelong Learning, University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
Rebeca Sima, Senior Lecturer, Department of Educational Psychology and
Curricullum Studies, University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
George Kahangwa, Senior Lecturer, Department of Educational Foundations,
Management and Lifelong Learning, University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
Albert Tarmo, Lecturer, Department of Educational Psychology and Curricullum
Studies, University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
Mpoki Mwaikokesya, Lecturer, Department of Educational Foundations,
Management and Lifelong Learning, University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
Stephen Mabagala, Senior Lecturer, Department of Physical Education and Sport
Sciences, University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
Nkanileka Loti Mgonda, Senior Lecturer, Department of Educational Foundations,
Management and Lifelong Learning, University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
Rose Upor, Senior Lecturer, Department of Foreign Languages and Linguistics,
University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania




Editorial Board Members (International)


Maria Hallitzky, Professor, Faculty of Education, University of Leipzig, Germany
Hanna Posti-Ahokas, Senior Researcher, Faculty of Education and Psychology,
University of Jyvaskyla, Finland
Elina Lehtomaki, Professor, Faculty of Education, University of Oulu, Finland
Editorial Advisory Panel (International)
Abel Ishumi, Professor Emeritus, School of Education, University of Dar es
Salaam, Tanzania
Daniel Sifuna, Professor, Department of Educational Foundations, Kenyatta
University, Kenya
Peter Baguma, Professor, Department of Organisational and Social Psychology,
Makerere University, Uganda
Francis Indoshi, Professor, School of Education, Maseno University, Kenya
Des Hewitt, Professor, School of Education, University of Warwick, UK

 


Editorial Correspondence


Editorial correspondence including manuscripts for submission should be sent to
The Chief Editor or Associate Chief Editors, Papers in Education and Development
(PED), School of Education, University of Dar es Salaam, P.O. Box 35048, Dar es
Salaam, Tanzania. Authors are advised to submit their papers in electronic form,
as an attachment, to email papersineducation@gmail.com, copied to ped@udsm.
ac.tz. Journal Website: http://ped.ac.tz


Editorial


Papers in Education and Development (PED) Journal is here to bring out Volume
40, Number 1 of 2022 for your reading. In this issue, we provide a collection of
scholarly research-based papers that address contemporary concerns in education
from different countries in East Africa and Tanzania in particular. This issue
is characterized by dominance of papers that address various issues in higher
education. The first six papers focus on higher education, then two papers focus
on secondary education followed by one paper on adult and community education
and the last one presents a case of primary education.


The first paper by Rose Upor examines pre-service English language teachers’
digital literacy practices of students enrolled in an education programme at a
university level. The findings revealed that the transfer of digital skills from nonacademic
to academic purposes was limited among the participants. According to
the results, digital experience outweighed age as a factor in integrating technology
into educational practices. Mobile devices were also frequently used to access the
Internet for teaching and learning. Pedagogically, this study emphasises adoption
of mobile literacy in universities to enhance language teaching and learning.

In
the second paper, William Majani applies the lenses of Relational Cultural Theory
(RCT) and Reflective in Practice Theory (RPT) to explore the role of experiential
learning in fostering professional inquiry growth, and relational building for preservice
teachers during practicum. From the field notes and reflective journal
findings indicated that practicum is an avenue to learn, unlearn and re-learn
about teaching. It is also a moment for novice teachers to connect and network
with education stakeholders in other communities. However, Majani cautions
that acknowledging context as an integral part of experiential learning must be
emphasized.
Next is Jackline Nyerere, Godwin Opinde, Purity Muthoni and Wilson Mutuma
arguing that high unemployment rate in Kenya has contributed to policy focus
on entrepreneurship such that universities have responded by incorporating
entrepreneurship in their curricula. This paper demonstrates how social
entrepreneurship skills are nurtured through incubation centers. A nested case
study research approach was used to select relevant social entrepreneurship
projects incubated at Kenyatta University. The paper indicates that the incubation
hub has enabled development of ideas into unique products which not only
contribute towards employment but also provide solutions to societal challenges.


In the fourth paper, Simon Ngalomba examines academic staff’s salary and
promotion practices and assesses the extent to which they influence their job

performance. By employing a correlational research design, it was revealed that,
due to low salary and the delay in remunerating academic staff some academic
staff looked for non-academic opportunities to make ends meet. Nonetheless,
Ngalomba establishes that there is no statistically significant relationship between
salary, promotion and job performance among university academic staff due to
the long time it takes for academic staff to get promoted from one academic rank
to the other.


In the next paper Joseph Kabage and Philipo Sanga explores instructors’
conceptions of online teaching and their implications for student learning at the
Open University of Tanzania. This phenomenological study unveiled two major
conceptions, namely online teaching as a means of improving teaching and
learning and online teaching as not being effective as traditional classroom training
or traditional distance education. According to Kabage and Sanga, improving
effective online instruction requires, among other things, establishing an enabling
Information and Communications Technology environment, and applying diverse
motivation strategies to instructors. The series of papers addressing issues in
higher education is concluded by Bernadetha Rushahu’s paper which deals with
the availability and challenges of guidance and counselling services provided
to female postgraduate students at the University of Dar es Salaam. Rushahu
concludes that the majority of female postgraduate students face numerous
obstacles in achieving their educational goals, hence a precursor for raising more
awareness on how to access the available counselling services within the campus.
Moving from higher education, Lwimiko Sanga explores the attitudes of
secondary school teachers towards provision of Sexual and Reproductive Health
Education (SRHE) to learners with deafness. A questionnaire was used to gather
data from Biology and Civics teachers. The findings indicated that teachers had
a negative attitude towards the provision of SRHE with the mean score of 37.83.
Additionally, Kruskal–Wallis Tests showed no statistical differences on age (p
= .252), sex (p = .778), teaching experience (p = .67), levels of education (p =
.185) and religion (p = .884). The study concludes that the attitude of teachers
towards teaching SRHE to learners with deafness was negative due to lack of
training on deafness and SRHE.

In the eighth paper, Allen Rugambwa, William
Anangisye and Mpoki Mwaikokesya present findings on the investigation of how
school-based teacher professional development contributes to learner-centred
pedagogical practices in secondary schools. Adopting a convergent-parallel
research design, the study revealed that the Probono Teacher Training Programme
contributed to the improvement of the application of learner-centred teaching
techniques, improvisation of teaching aids, and laboratory management practices.
It also contributed to the active participation of students in group discussions and
laboratory-based experimental activities.


The penultimate paper is Benjamin Mbughi’s examination of the status of
financial resources for community education programmes in Tanzania. The study
highlighted that insufficient funds were disbursed for community education
programmes, and that the nature of leadership determined the release of funds. In
order to avoid delay of implementation of sustainable community development
programmes, Mbughi recommends that investment in both formal and nonformal
education should be a crucial national agenda. The last paper is by Only
Jeon who reports project findings on the role of school-based energy supply and
conditional cash transfer projects in improving primary education. Educational
components included in the analysis are learning motivation among pupils and
their attendance rate. It is shown that the motivation for education through the
supply of energy improves attendance. Also, the number of runaway students
decreased due to battery charging time, teaching-learning time was stabilized
through the digital attendance management system, and self-study time increased
due to solar battery lighting.
On behalf of the Editorial Board, I extend our heartfelt appreciations to all
individuals who made this issue a reality. Once again, we welcome your valuable
ideas on improving the quality of our esteemed journal.

 


Eustella P. Bhalalusesa


Chief Editor of Papers in Education and Development

 


CONTENTS


Harnessing Digital Literacy Practices of Undergraduate
Pre-service English Language Teachers in Tanzania
Rose A. Upor.................................................................................................... 1


Reflecting on Pre-service Teachers’ Practicum in Tanzania: Avenue for
Professional Inquiry, Discovery and Growth
William Pastory Majani.................................................................................... 20


Incubating Graduate Entrepreneurs in Kenya: Nested Case Studies of
Kenyatta University Chandaria Business Innovation Incubation Centre
Jackline Nyerere, Godwin Opinde, Purity Muthoni and Wilson Mutuma......................... 40


Influence of Salary and Promotion on Academic Staff’s Job
Performance in Tanzanian Universities
Simon Peter Ngalomba...................................................................................... 59


Instructors’ Conceptions of Online Teaching and their Implications
for Students’ Learning at the Open University of Tanzania
Joseph Kabage and Philipo Lonati Sanga................................................................. 77


Availability and Challenges of Guidance and Counseling Services
for Female Postgraduate Students at the University of Dar es Salaam
Bernadetha Gabriel Rushahu.............................................................................. 96


Secondary School Teachers’ Attitudes towards Provision of Sexual and
Reproductive Health Education to Learners with Deafness in Tanzania
Lwimiko Salum Sanga, Mwajabu K. Possi and Joyce Sifa Ndabi............................ 110


The Contribution of School-Based Teacher Professional Development to
Learner-Centred Pedagogical Practices in Secondary Schools in Tanzania
Allen Rugambwa, William A. L. Anangisye and Mpoki J. Mwaikokesya.................... 128



Analysis of the Status of Financial Resources for Community
Education Programmes in Tanzania
Benjamin Mbughi....................................................................................... 147


Role of School-Based Energy Supply and Conditional Cash Transfer
Projects in Improving Primary Education: Case of Losimingori
Primary School Project in Monduli District in Tanzania
Only Jeon................................................................................................ 167

 


PED EDITORIAL POLICY AND NOTES FOR CONTRIBUTORS............................ 177