Challenges of Inclusion of Primary School Pupils with Hearing Impairment in Physical Activities in Tanzania


  • Janeth Danford Mlay University of Dar es Salaam
  • Stephen Mabagala Mabagala School of Education, University of Dar es Salaam €“ Tanzania
  • Joyce Sifa Ndabi School of Education, University of Dar es Salaam €“ Tanzania


Pupils with hearing impairment are not adequately included in physical
activities in primary school globally but more so in the global South. This
study was conducted in a selected primary school in Tanzania. It is a
qualitative study that employed an embedded single case design to gain indepth
understanding of the study. The study was guided by Bronfenbrenner
system theory (1979). The sample comprised thirty eight purposively selected
participants. Data were collected through interview, documentary review,
and observation schedule methods. The data were thematically analysed.
Findings revealed specific and general challenges such as lack of sign
language skills used during physical activity, poor aesthetic attributes,
inaccessible physical activity facilities and equipment, stigmatization,
unsafe play facilities and lack of physical activity programme. The results
revealed that the school was insufficiently equipped for inclusion. Based
on the findings of this study, it is recommended that to solve the revealed
challenges schools should provide a conducive environment for inclusion
of pupils with hearing impairment in physical activities.
Keywords: deaf, hearing impairment, inclusion, school environment